The Ninth Circuit relied upon a 1994 Office of Civil Rights (OCR) Guidance to reach its decision in Monteiro v. Tempe Union High School District. The Guidance outlines the procedures and analysis that OCR follows when investigating possible violations of Title VI based upon racial incidents and harassment. Reprinted below are excerpts from the OCR Guidance:
Hostile Environment Analysis
To establish a violation of title VI under the hostile environment theory, OCR must find that: (1) A racially hostile environment existed; (2) the recipient had actual or constructive notice of the racially hostile environment; and (3) the recipient failed to respond adequately to redress the racially hostile environment. Whether conduct constitutes a hostile environment must be determined from the totality of the circumstances, with particular attention paid to the factors discussed below.
Severe, Pervasive or Persistent Standard
To determine whether a racially hostile environment exists, it must be determined if the racial harassment is severe, pervasive or persistent. OCR will examine the context, nature, scope, frequency, duration, and location of racial incidents, as well as the identity, number, and relationships of the persons involved. The harassment must in most cases consist of more than casual or isolated racial incidents to establish a title VI violation. Generally, the severity of the incidents needed to establish a racially hostile environment under title VI varies inversely with their persuasiveness or persistence.
An educational institution has a duty to provide a nondiscriminatory environment that is conducive to learning. In addition to the curriculum, students learn about many different aspects of human life and interaction from school. The type of environment that is tolerated or encouraged by or at a school can therefore send a particularly strong signal to, and serve as an influential lesson for, its students.
Reasonable Person Standard
If OCR determines that the harassment was sufficiently severe that it would have adversely affected the enjoyment of some aspect of the recipient's educational program by a reasonable person, of the same age and race as the victim, under similar circumstances, OCR will find that a hostile environment existed. The perspective of a person of the same race as the victim is necessary because race is the immutable characteristic upon which the harassment is based. The reasonable person standard as applied to a child must incorporate the age, intelligence and experience of a person under like circumstances to take into account the developmental differences in maturity and perception due to age.
Single Incident Sufficient
To determine severity, the nature of the incidents must also be considered. Evidence may reflect whether the conduct was verbal or physical and the extent of hostility characteristic of the incident. In some cases, a racially hostile environment requiring appropriate responsive action may result from a single incident that is sufficiently severe. Such incidents may include, for example, injury to persons or property or conduct threatening injury to persons or property.
Finally, racial acts need not be targeted at the complainant in order to create a racially hostile environment. The acts may be directed at anyone. Additionally, the harassment need not result in tangible injury or detriment to the victims of the harassment. If OCR finds that a hostile environment existed under these standards, then it will proceed to determine whether the recipient received notice of the harassment, and whether the recipient took reasonable steps to respond to the harassment.
A recipient can receive notice in many different ways. For example, a student may have filed a grievance or complained to a teacher about fellow students racially harassing him or her. A student, parent, or other individual may have contacted other appropriate personnel, such as a principal, campus security, an affirmative action officer, or staff in the office of student affairs. An agent or responsible employee of the institution may have witnessed the harassment. The recipient may have received notice in an indirect manner, from sources such as a member of the school staff, a member of the educational or local community, or the media. The recipient also may have received notice from flyers about the incident(s) posted around the school.
The existence of both a policy and grievance procedure applicable to racial harassment (depending upon their scope, accessibility and clarity, and upon the acts of harassment) is relevant in the determination of agency capacity. A policy or grievance procedure applicable to harassment must be clear in the types of conduct prohibited in order for students to know and understand their rights and responsibilities. As discussed above, in the education context, the person from whose perspective the apparent authority of an agent or employee of a recipient must be evaluated is a reasonable student of the same age, intelligence and experience as the alleged victim of the harassment.
Once a recipient has notice of a racially hostile environment, the recipient has a legal duty to take reasonable steps to eliminate it. In evaluating a recipient's response to a racially hostile environment, OCR will examine disciplinary policies, grievance policies, and any applicable anti-harassment policies. OCR also will determine whether the responsive action was consistent with any established institutional policies or with responsive action taken with respect to similar incidents.
OCR will investigate allegations of racial incidents where the incidents fall within its jurisdiction. Based on the facts and circumstances of each case OCR will use either or both the standard different treatment analysis and the hostile environment analysis to determine whether title VI has been violated.
If OCR determines that an agent or employee, acting within the scope of his or her employment, treated someone differently on the basis of race, color, or national origin without a legitimate, nondiscriminatory reason for the treatment then OCR will conclude that Title VI was violated. If OCR determines that a racially hostile environment exists at a recipient, the recipient had notice of it, and the recipient failed to take adequate action in response to the hostile environment, OCR will also find a violation. If OCR determines that a hostile environment was not established, or that a hostile environment was established but that the recipient either (1) did not have notice of it; or (2) had notice of it and took adequate action in response, OCR will find no violation.
Federal Register, Vol. 59, No. 47, Thursday, March 10, 1994